In 2008 Therese Woodward wanted to retire and her function was taken over by Stephen Gourlay also of the Kingston Business School. Trained as an archeologist he has moved into business studies and has made significant contributions to the discussion on tacit knowledge and knowledge management. The focus of the summer research academy has been kept but with strengthened emphasis on methodology. It is still a great experience for participants to meet fellow researchers in the business area that work with completely different methods and in different sub-areas. The faculty presentations have become presentations of current trends in research, the research system and in business research. Discussions on mode 1 and mode 2, on statistics and its use – statistical significance – on new approaches to qualitative research, and the moral and political responsibility of business researchers in the wake of the financial crisis have been topics of debate and discussion. Students have responded with enthusiasm and critique, and have themselves often presented research projects taking up important challenges in business and society.
1.2 The EDAMBA Exchange Programs
Very early in the existence of EDAMBA it was decided to try to further exchange of doctoral students. The European research programs – the so-called Framework programs – supported this in general as a way of creating more cooperation between European research institutions. I applied for support for this under the Human Capital and Mobility program and we got a number of exchange fellowship months. These were offered to doctoral students for stay at a possible a number of exchanges of doctoral students. This initiated a mode of functioning where openness and staying at other institutions became a natural thing. Students started to think
internationally, and to find it natural and a good contribution to their education to experience other research environments. In some countries staying at other research institutions in other countries even became a requirement. Research is by nature international and so should research education be.
1.3 The EUDOKMA – European Doctoral School on Knowledge and Management
In 1999 the European research funding programs made it possible to create and seek funding for European doctoral programs. Creating such programs had been begun in the engineering field and under support from the European organization of universities – actually the organization of their rectors. The European Union as it had then become of course would like to support such a development totally in line with their intentions in their research and cooperation support programs in other areas. EDAMBA had already profited from support from these for running summer schools and exchanges. The requirements for support were fairly extensive and involved a setup with formal cooperation agreements between the institutions involved. It was decided at an executive committee meeting in 1999 to try to create a European
doctoral school in one of the areas in which EDAMBA member schools were working. It could have been finance or marketing but the new focus on the role of knowledge in the economy was chosen. In the middle of the 1990’s the concept of the knowledge economy had come forward – the OECD played a large role here – and the thinking around knowledge and the learning society/organization was seen as “cutting edge”. The ideas for a doctoral program were also influenced by the emerging concept of doctoral schools. A doctoral school was conceived as a organized program with a set of courses in the area of research giving and defining the stateof-
art in the area, a set of courses on the research methods being pursued in the actual research projects and a number of research students and supervisors connected to active research environments with a number of ongoing research projects to which students could be attached. The European programs could support the organization of common doctoral courses and the exchange of doctoral students. A network was created and in several meetings an agreement for cooperation was made. Among the members of the network were Copenhagen Business School, ESADE, Henley Management College, Uppsala University, Rotterdam School of Management, and the research institute ISTUD in Italy. Rules defining a doctoral program were set up and what amounted to a consortium agreement was entered into. The basic underlying conception of a European doctoral degree, were inspired from the CEMS program – Community of European Management Schools. This program issued a certificate
supplementing the degree certificate from the individual school where the student was enrolled. The certificate was certifying that the student had followed courses under the program and these courses were designed by groups under the program with representatives of the member schools. The EUDOKMA certificate would in the same way certify that a doctoral student had taken common courses in a certain amount, had spent time in another European doctoral program that was a member of EUDOKMA and that the assessment of the dissertation had been made with a committee with European members. So the ideal was a doctoral program which respected the conference of degrees by national institutions and programs in which students enrolled, but also programs that cooperated in ways that were decided at the European level and to which the members of the doctoral school conformed. The European Union had at the time started to use the name Marie Curie for the various programs under the Framework Program for cooperation and exchange and the doctoral schools were called Marie Curie training sites. I made the application in the fall of 1999 and it was successful. Thus in the following years a number of courses were organized and several exchange students got funding for staying at another institution in the network. The grant provided for support for doctoral students to take part in doctoral courses and for longer stays at the schools that formed the doctoral school. The
course program consisted of courses in research methodology – these were offered by Henley and Kingston in cooperation – typically run by Arthur Money and Phil Samouel – and by ESADE – typically run by Eduard Bonet and myself. Then there were courses in key research areas. Examples of these were organizational learning – typically offered by ESADE – knowledge management, which was offered by Copenhagen Business School and run by Mette Moensted and me, Knowledge, strategy and the firm, offered by Rotterdam School of Management. Each year a course program was published and students could apply and get support for travel and staying expenses. After the first couple of years other institutions joined the network and offered courses. This showed that it was both possible to create a systematic set of courses in a given area of business research and to do it at the European level. The idea of doctoral schools took hold, and now there are many and they offer an organized set of courses, courses for supervisors and seminars and symposia for their doctoral students. The idea of international cooperation in organizing and running such schools has also taken hold although there is still a very “national” flavor to academic degrees. The EUDOKMA idea of “international” certification of national degrees has shown a way forward. Under the Erasmus program the idea of European doctoral schools and of cooperation between doctoral programs has been taken a step further. The EUDOKMA program was part of the development of doctoral education. It preserved the ideal of the apprenticeship form of doctoral training and the ideal of research education through doing research. You learn to be a researcher by being it. It preserved the ideal – a challenging one – of the supervisor as initiator, coach and mentor, not to say teacher in one and the same person. But it added the ideal of a running set of specialized courses offering introduction to the research frontier and current research issues and discussions and more instrumental courses in relevant research methodologies. Also included in the idea of a doctoral
school was that it should include reflection and awareness of the methods and philosophical assumptions underlying a particular piece or tradition of research. Thus EUDOKMA helped show the way forward for doctoral programs.
In 1991 when EDAMBA was founded I was chairman of the Doctoral Program at the Copenhagen Business School in the Faculty of Business Economics (there was also a smaller Faculty of Modern Languages). At the time the doctoral program was small and only aimed at training researchers for future employment at the school. In 1993 a new structure was adopted creating a program rather than just an assembly of individual research projects under supervision. The further development of the program followed that of EDAMBA closely as did most of doctoral education in Denmark. With the development of a more knowledge and innovation intensive economy the need for research training also changed. This was reflected in both the enormous growth in the number of doctoral students and the change of the nature of
doctoral programs. Many countries developed forms of doctoral schools and international cooperation intensified. In 2000 I was made chairman of the Danish Council for Doctoral Education which had the task of developing Danish doctoral education among other things through the implementation of doctoral schools and larger doctoral programs at the national level. In 2001 I was called on to build a new research institution attached to the newly founded Danish University of Education – The Learning Lab Denmark. There I also worked with doctoral education and part of the Learning Lab Denmark was a doctoral school in organizational learning with Professor Bente Elkjær as chair – DOCSOL. Doctoral education was in this context understood not only in the traditional Humboldtian way as apprenticeship
learning but also as a form of social or organizational learning. During the years many people have assisted in running the various activities of EDAMBA in the sphere of academic programs. The summer schools where administered by Jens Joergensen who was working in various capacities during the years in the administration at CBS, and later took hold of finances at Learning Lab Denmark. He also assisted in the making and administration of the many EU grants and contracts we obtained. These were instrumental in making summer schools, exchanges and course programs possible.
1.4 From EDAMBA Winter Academies to EDAMBA-EIASM Consortium on Doctoral
Supervision and the New Global Research Landscape
Building on the success of the three EDAMBA winter academies that took place at Grenoble Ecole de Management from 2008 to 2010, EDAMBA joined forces with its parent institution, the European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management (EIASM) and launched the EDAMBA-EIASM Consortium on Doctoral Supervision and the New Global Research Landscape. The Consortium was held at Grenoble Ecole de Management in 2012 and 2013, then it has been settled to ESADE, Barcelona since 2014.
Developing capable doctoral supervisors has become a major concern around the world as we’re facing an increasing shortage of doctorally qualified faculty in Management and Business Studies. The fourth cycle in the ‘Bologna process’ aimed at newly appointed or/and junior faculty interested in doctoral supervision. For EIASM and EDAMBA this created a unique opportunity to collaborate on the issue of doctoral supervision as the development of capable doctoral supervisors begs for the creation of an exchange forum, where both junior and senior supervisors could reflect, discuss, and share best practices. The ultimate aim, is the development
of capable doctoral supervisors for fostering research active academic communities across Europe and beyond, producing relevant and rigorous knowledge, and able to fight their way in the new, highly competitive global research landscape.
The EDAMBA – EIASM Consortium targets, on the one hand, newly appointed doctoral supervisors and/or potential supervisors who have recently obtained their doctoral degree and work in European Universities or Business Schools, but have yet to supervise a doctoral student to successful completion towards his or her thesis (e.g., PhD, DBA). On the other hand, our Consortium targets senior academics interested in the issue of doctoral supervision, who wish to reflect on their valuable experiences and to profit from exchanges with others.
Both senior and junior colleagues will benefit in multiple fronts from:
• sharing concerns and/or questions relative to doctoral supervision across institutional,
disciplinary and geographical boundaries;
• engaging in a dialogue in an intellectually stimulating and still intimate environment ;
• learning from best research practices throughout Europe and beyond.
The size of the group is limited to about 30 doctoral supervisors both junior and senior faculty from an array of Business and Management disciplines and institutions. They will be mainly selected from the respective networks of the EIASM academic council members and EDAMBA doctoral programmes throughout Europe and beyond. In addition a few places will be reserved for interested applicants from outside both the EIASM and EDAMBA communities. We have invited about a dozen Faculty from the EU and USA who have agreed to give their time free of charge. The majority of them have already contributed lectures, shared research results and taught in small groups all three previous EDAMBA winter academies.